The racial politics of Tuareg nationalism


Like good nomads ought to be, Tuareg desert blues super group Tinariwen are on tour. I hear good things about them as individuals, and I’m sure they’re all fine human beings, but I’m not a big fan. The music is alright, but the politics is rancid. Here’s why.

“Our music was created under the same circumstances as the American blues,” Eyadou Ag Leche tells Belgian TV. “We’ve been colonized.” He seems to want a Tuareg state in the Malian Sahara, something like the state of Azawad that declared its independence from Mali on Friday.

Whatever Tinariwen’s singing, it ain’t the blues. It’s the white man’s blues. In the 1950s, many people in the southern Sahara, mostly Tuareg, did not want to be ruled by Blacks (sound familiar?). The racial divide was an old one, but the French colonizers had nurtured it, even doped it up just before independence. They promised to create a separate Saharan territory expressly for the Tuareg, one that would stay under French rule. When independence came in 1960, and much of the Sahara became Malian territory, many Tuareg considered this a betrayal — the ‘other’ Whites had left them to be ruled by the Blacks. Some have been in revolt, on and off, ever since. This history isn’t pretty, and the racism cuts both ways. The extreme violence with which Mali put down a Tuareg revolt in the early ’60s didn’t help. They might have killed a lot of people, but they didn’t kill the dream. Today’s claims for an independent ‘Azawad’ are based on an old racial rhetoric and a newer nationalist veneer.

So whose blues are Tinariwen singing? I’m from the South — not the global one, the American one. If Lynyrd Skynryd sang this same song (“Sweet Home, Azawad”?), you and I would call bullshit on that, too.

Comments

comments

Gregory Mann

Gregory Mann is Professor of History at Columbia University. He is author of two books, ' Native Sons' (2006) and From Empires to NGOs in the West African Sahel (2015).

52 Comments
  1. I’ve read other articles that seem to share a similar opinion to this but surely we must also consider the fact that the Touareg are, like many other ethnic groups in Africa, divided by the borders drawn by retreating colonizers- they are a marginalized minority in every state they live in. In such situations surely we have to consider whether peace would be better served by simply negotiating and facilitating the establishment of Azawad- or any other similar state. I suppose the fear of AQIM and the so-far-unmentioned resources there mean that will be unlikely…

  2. Claims for Azawad are based on much more than racial rhetoric. Race and ethnicity play a role, like in most politics, but they are not the sole explanation. The Tuareg have a pastoral lifestyle and culture very different from that in the capital cities of Bamako, Niamey, etc. In many places throughout the Sahel, they (along with the Fulani) find it difficult being allowed and integrated into communities dominated by majority ethnic groups. Further to this, the resources in their homeland (i.e. Uranium near Agadez) have been exploited with little benefit going to local communities. Although separation may not be the solution, comparing this to the American Confederacy is off the mark. Having spent time with Tuareg and Wodaabe pastoralists in Northern Niger, I have witnessed their plight and can empathize with their anxieties. Unfortunately I don’t think the creation of Azawad is the best solution.

  3. I agree with Gregory Mann’s argument about the importance of racial discourse in the framing and history of Tuareg nationalism. Of course, everyone in Northern Mali is acutely aware of this, and that is surely why spokespeople for the MNLA consistently claim that the new independent Azawad will be for both blacks and whites (by which they mean Tuareg and Arabs of non-servile descent). We can all hope that the history of racialized violence in the region, most recently in the 1990s, does not repeat itself. But seen in these terms, the framing of an oppressed autochthonous people, defending themselves against Malian state oppression, is meant largely fon international (Western) consumption where racial arguments would carry little weight. Calling it out is an important thing to do.

  4. You view the Tuareg as “other” whites… I’m from North Africa and I am a little surprised. Is it based on writings, quotes from Tuareg representatives?
    On the other hand, let’s be careful with generalizations. Not all Tuareg may be in agreement with what is going on currently, or how it is going on.
    Let’s add to the picture the posthumous impacts of Gaddafi’s violent strategies, and the lack of political inclusiveness of the Malian and other states of the region.

    1. The French used that language, Saharans had their own bidan/sudan distinction. The two mapped on to each other, and this is how the issue was talked about in the 1950s. Historians Bruce Hall and Baz Lecocq have written deeply about this–I was trying to be very brief.

      1. Thank you for these elements. I am still puzzled that the Tuareg would describe themselves as bid or bidan (ie. whites in Arabic) and frame it as a white-black issue … BUT… I get the idea you’re trying to convey and the type of distinction you refer to. One one hand you have a Berber group (the Tuaregs), on another you have the so call Arab Malians, and on yet another the more West African rooted ethnic groups (the sudan/so called black people).

  5. This is an important start.

    It’s important to speak the unspoken of which everyone involved is aware. As the likelihood grows that this war will become more an intra-communal civil war, we no longer have the luxury of masking one of its drivers, as delicate and distasteful as discussions as these may be.

    My fear is that the longer this conflict goes on, the more racialized the discourse will become. That will draw in more and more communities, defining all as white or black, forcing everyone onto a ‘side.’.

    I often point to a anecdote Prof. Hall (above) includes in the introduction of his “History of Race in Muslim West Africa”. Here, a community formed of sedentary “blacks” who have moved into a northern community, adopt as their own the history of the formerly enslaved, but unrelated neighbors, as well as the resentment of their neighbors’ pastoral Touareg former masters.

    Taking people and societies seriously includes recognizing the way even elements of culture outsiders may find difficult or distateful drive conflict. While surely the baggage of a minority of individuals, we should not ignore the role race and class, slavery and nobility play in some Touareg communities’ always evolving self definition. That self-definition has created this war as it feeds their notions as a people apart, as surely as their much discussed history of abuse and murder at the hands of the Malian government does.

    No one wins if Malians allow this to become, even more, a racial conflict. Malians and others need to at least talk frankly about this possibility, before it becomes unavoidable.

  6. I appreciate how the comments on AIAC are thoughtful and informative. In this particular case more so than the article.

  7. Correct me if I’m wrong, but nomadic people and settled people have never – ever – happily coexisted at any point in human history, anywhere. The Tuareg situation is highly unlikely to be an exception to this. One can frame this in racial terms, or one can frame it in older terms that go back to the nomad Cain and his pastoral brother Abel.

    An independent Azawad may well turn out to be a disaster for the Tuareg, but is there any compelling reason to force them to remain part of a nation for which they evidently feel no affinity whatsoever? (Apart from resource-related reasons, I mean…)

  8. False analogy. Tuareg are mixed & struggling against Arabs in the north & Bantu to the south.

    1. Wow, I didn’t realize the Malians were Bantu speaking peoples. Maybe you should revisit your other comments. And coming from the Caribbean, i know that mixed peoples can be extremely racists.

      1. I think a lot of people tend to employ Bantu in lieu of saying “Black Africans”. This is incorrect, as Bantu refers to a family of ethnic groups and languages. The majority of people in Mali, aside from Tuareg and Fulani, are of Mande origins – with Bambara as the dominant language. It’s also incorrect to term Tuaregs as “white”, when they are black, brown, and light-skinned. As nomads who move around and mix with various populations, they have a very diverse racial composition.

  9. I’m afraid that for the first time I disagree with Greg, on the one point where he implicitly calls Tinariwen’s lyrics racist by comparing their views and lyrics to Lynyrd Skynyrd’s song ‘Sweet home Alabama’ and by calling it ‘White man’s blues’, therewith drawing an askance parallel with the US South. I have been listening to Tinariwen since 1994, and I have carefully studied all their lyrics in the original Tamasheq and in translations in French and German (I have made tentative translations in English myself, the existing English translations in the CD inlays are not always very good), from the songs they wrote and performed in the 1980s to the new songs on their last album. I can assure you that none of their lyrics are racist in any way, not even in the hidden meaning of their tengelt, their Tuareg slang language. Tinariwen are nationalist, certainly. They sing about the problems of their people. A history that they see as one of occupation and oppression by colonial and postcolonial powers is one of these problems. Tribalism and racism are part of these problems too and they and others recognise them, and deal with them in various ways. As for Tinariwen: they condemn both. If a comparison with US artists is to be made, they are more like Neil Young singing about how Azawad’s Cadillac has a wheel in the ditch and a wheel on the track. Tinariwen is a racially and tribally mixed band according to Tuareg views on race, although for the average western observant they probably all look black, while for the average Malian they might all look white. More importantly, many Tuareg won’t be able to see who in Tinariwen is white and who is black either, as Tuareg categories of race are more informed by genealogical descent than by phenotypical appearance, another reason why the comparison made here with US society falls short of being accurate. Racism does exist in Tuareg society, as well as in Malian society at large. I am among the first to acknowledge that. Race is projected internally on different social groups that make up Tuareg society, it informs Tuareg political and social notions toward their neighbouring peoples (in other words: racial arguments are indeed part of the justification of the Tuareg wish for independence) , and it informs attitudes of other Malian, African, Arab and Western peoples toward Tuareg society. Race certainly informs the current nationalist uprising and the declaration of Azawad independence, but it is not exactly race as it is understood in western (US) society. Furthermore: not all nationalist Tuareg are racist and Tinariwen are definitely not, not in person (as Greg already suspected they would not be) and not in lyrics, even if they are among the most nationalist of all Tuareg.

    1. Great analysis, Baz – the Neil Young analogy is telling, since “Sweet Home Alabama” was an explicit response to Young’s song “Alabama.”

      1. Friends, korow,

        My point is that Tuareg nationalism has racialist roots, a point with which my good friend Baz agrees. Never said Tinariwen members are racist, gimme a break. Nor did I mention their lyrics, only what members have said, and from that to talk about MNLA nationalism (in 350 words!)

        Further grist for my mill, in French, is at:
        http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xpvsc7_03-04-2012-culture_news

        From the Afropop folks, an argument along the lines of mine is at:
        http://blog.afropop.org/2012/04/tinariwen-mali-and-failure-of-western.html

        Following on what our friend Bruce Hall says, trying to take the racial framing out of Tuareg nationalism is like to trying to take the chill off a Martini.

        And, please, y’all, “Southern Man”, not just “Alabama.”

  10. “Tuareg, did not want to be ruled by Blacks (sound familiar?). The racial divide was an old one”
    Wait, what? My skin is pretty dark for a white person. I’ve noticed this about people who attempt to cover the conflict: one group chooses to classify Tuareg as White, the other chooses to call them Arab and now they are described as some kind of anti Blacks, even though most are dark, brown, or black (whichever you prefer).
    “Other White”, that’s funny, I must admit.

  11. Why are white people so obsessed with labeling people “white?”

    He choosed to call it ‘White’ blues (is this a new genre?) on purpose. As if it wasn’t enough, he later continues and implies that Tuareg are “other Whites”, he also justifies this by saying: “The French used that language” (see comments), very clever of a journalist to use a colonial country to justify his use of an abusive term. Yes, absolutely. Thanks for letting me know that I’m really white because the French said so, maybe I can ask for special privileges even though I am Black and on the Darker side.

    This person, who is referred to as ” a historian of African history at Columbia University.” is not the first and certainly not the last to imply or call Tuareg White . He’s not a random journalist, but also a historian but he doesn’t know this particular subject, with all due respect, if I didn’t search I would have never guessed this article was written by a Historian (he also ignored my comment btw, I wonder why).

    1. I think that you need to be more honest. The race/colour issue is real just like it is in Sudan, Niger, Libya, or my own Caribbean nation with Africans and dark skinned East Indians. If colour did not matter then there would not be so much rampant skin bleaching in so many communities of colour. Also, the framing of the Tuaregs as non Black is not a European creation, as mixed as many of them are. The article raises some valid points, let us not pretend that they do not exist.

    2. Jade, who are you? I wrote the thing you posted, at least let me know first and state the source when you want to use my argument.

      Tuareg are not Whites, nor other Whites.

  12. Brian, what’s going on in your own nation has nothing to do with Tuareg people.
    I doubt you or other know Tuareg in real life, therefor you don’t have a right to co-sign when someone implies we are other “Whites”. I’m not angry at you commenting on a Tuareg article but I have an issue when you mislabel us. Our hierarchy is based on occupations, we don’t have the whole racial baggage you have, we come in all shades, light to dark but no we are not Whites AT ALL.

    “there would not be so much rampant skin bleaching in so many communities of colour”
    Yeah, yeah, thanks for sharing this info with me, Tuareg bleach all the time, we want to be Whites, we strive to be Whites! Are you serious? You’re ignorant and you’re flattering yourself. We don’t want to be Whites, I agree that a lot of minorities use this method but certainly not Tuareg. What would you gain by labelling us as Whites? Nothing. We’re not Whites. Some Tuaregs are lighters than ‘Black Africans’ that’s true, still doesn’t make us whites.

  13. I’ve got to agree that there is something a bit unnerving about people categorizing others with terms that they do not identify with themselves. I think there could have been a better way to present this dynamic of the conflict, without creating false dichotomies to American white supremacy.

  14. How does Azawad compare to South Sudan? I have heard suggestions about both that they are not really viable countries, but my own knowledge is quite sketchy.

  15. What do you define as a “race”, as separate from a “tribe” or “ethnic group”? If Berber peoples wish for their own homeland, is this “nationialist”, “ethnocentrist”, “tribalist”, “racist”, or just “self determination”? Any of the above? all of the above? Some of the above?

    1. It’s hard to remain calm when people choose to stay ignorant. They are rebelling against a government that marginalised them. There are Tuareg in Algeria and the reason they haven’t rebelled (yet, maybe) is because they are involved in the Economic life of the country. The Tuareg always had a problem with their government, since the colonial ‘power’s drew the borders, they knew they would not always coexist in peace with Mali, because the country refuses to recognize them as equal citizens and value their culture. So the reason why you are so interested by the conflict is because of the so called ‘racial’ perspective? Interesting. Very interesting.

      Don’t claim those who don’t want to be claimed. The reason why you want to believe we are whites is because you can now say: “hey look, it’s not only us who are racist and bigots, black people do it too”. Don’t use us to fulfill your agenda, especially since you DON’t know us.
      We support our brothers from Azawad, that does not mean we are less Africans or less Black, Brown or Lights, so quit your bullshit, Tuareg are not Boers.

      I have seen clever ‘reporters’ (in reference to ‘Steve Sailer’). What a shame.

      This debate is going nowhere so if it makes you sleep at night, call us whatever you please BUT that does not mean we are whites just because you think we are ignoramus. http://sailerfraud.blogspot.com , nevermind.

  16. this is such a silly article. americans really do like to project their own past as universal history.

  17. This is how many white people are. They want to create every conflict into a racialized one. They live, breathe, and drink ideas about racial hierarchy, because how else can they stay dominant? Without feelings of superiority, they will self destruct. Seems like they want to claim the Tuareg, when the Tuareg could not give even two fucks about them. These people are sick and have damaged the spirit of humanity by creating these psuedo definitions of race that truly has no relevance in reality. Funny how the category of “white/caucasian” can be so broad but “black” is carefully, narrowly defined. These white people will rob identities, histories, and cultures for their own benefit. Evil fucks.

    Its time for Africans of all colors, languages, and cultures to support one another.

    1. >>>>>>>> Its time for Africans of all colors, languages, and cultures to support one another.>>>>>>>>
      Sorry to wake You up, but there’s no success – not even the white-skinned or the yellow-skinned or red-skinned people could have unite and work together. No, they’ve been in wars all thru the history, and still are somewhere, all the time.
      Africa is the most diverse mainland at least what comes to its people’s genetics, I feel, it is also the most difficult place to get a trully working union. I tone this is my view, call it racist, well, we are different in many details and that gives us enuf material to thinkg and fuss about for the next centuries to come :)

  18. Luna you offend me very much thinking all white people are that way. I am white and before my ancestors came to Europe they were Tuareg and Bedouin. I’m pretty much white now but very proud of where I originally came from. We are all the same people and you do not help

    1. Alexie,
      You are white as you say now and it is always wise to live in the present. Be what you are now! do not live or the past. The comment is correct for those of us who have stayed non-white. Allow us that are not white an opinion that is based on the present politics and not the past. Political paradigms do exist at the present time 2012 and do not be offended if they do not include you in the best possible light.

  19. I’d like to see more elaboration on this issue. As it is, I find this post a bit unconvincing. Aside from not even alluding to any sources for previous racism, you also don’t address the fact that the rhetoric of this year’s rebellion has been overwhelmingly non-racial. Support for the uprising has overall been very much dominated by a nationalism with little mention of race. And though even sympathetic commentators such as Andy Morgan admit that this is in reality a movement by and for Tuaregs, the MNLA has actually gone to great lengths to emphasize that they seek a civic nation rather than an ethnic one – they have repeatedly called for a secular and multi-ethnic state for the region.

    Furthermore, in the excellent Baz Lecocq article you linked to in another post (http://www.e-ir.info/2012/04/05/northern-mali-the-things-we-assume/), the author suggests that the rebellion is fact not even really about nationalism, but about anarchism: “In the Azawad the rural population expects nothing good from the government at all and they only hope for it to leave them alone. To most Tuareg pastoralists, ‘Azawad independence’ means ‘no more state interference in our lives’.”

    There may in fact be a race dynamic to the recent events in Northern Mali, but I haven’t yet seen any evidence of it. And unless you have such evidence, your assertions here seem overly sensational and a bit unfair. Must we judge the current generation of activists based on vague accusations about their forebears from half a century ago?

  20. I’m confused. Genetically, the “light-skinned” Tuareg are mixed with different haplogroups. I see them as “biracials” or as South Africaners would say: “colored” people. They are NOT black. My father is white and I have light-brown skin like the Tuareg. That does NOT make me black. It makes me “mixed”. I am of African descent only. The parts of Africa where the people are extremely dark-skinned have no history of slavery – hence they remain dark-skinned. Black people do not come in various shades (this is a racist hierarchal thinking). People are often shocked that my father is white. But in Africa, I would be considered “mixed” and I know, for a fact, from an ex-Tanzanian friend, that “biracials” are despised in most parts of Africa (that doesn’t mean that there aren’t some dark-skinned blacks who aren’t sympathetic to biracials). The Tuareg are neither white nor black but a mixture of different “ethnicities”. As far as I can tell, they deserve their own “nation-state”. They are not upkeeping the French colonial mentality, the way I see it. I have met all members of Tinariwen and they are exceptionally wonderful and warm people. Their music speaks to the soul – especially in a world where “pop” drivel is around us twenty-four hours a day/seven days a week non-stop (do we really need to see Madonna’s breast at the age of 54). The members of Tinariwen do not consider themselves “white” but they also do not consider themselves “dark-skinned” peoples either. Irregardless of what the French post-colonial spirit has done, the Tuareg are mixed. They deserve their own “state”. Please, do your reseach into the genetic makeup of the “lighter-skinned” peoples of Africa. They are MIXED.

    1. No you’re not confused. You see what I see some black people that are a little lighter skinned wanting to be white. They want to be arab because arab is white to them and it’s “better” than being black. And like in all times, when two shades lighter than black want to prove to white massa that they are the better negro, the first thing they do? They tell massa about the darker negroes and hope massa will pat them on the head. Slavery in America was started by slavery in Arab controlled Africa.

      Where do you see black people in an arab dominated society being taken seriously about a black state? Sudan? Hell no. Sudan was carved up because again, the lighter “arab wanna be” ruling government wanted to impress Egypt and their arab friends and so they shat on the blacks in the south. The blacks couldn’t take it anymore.

      Senegal/Mauritania? Oh again, blacks were minding their own business until some Tuareg whores got it in their mind that all blacks in Mauritania should kiss their behinds.

      You don’t SEE blacks starting trouble in any country. They only respond to brutal oppression. HERE? Azawad? They think Islam is a path to a lighter society. PERIOD.

      1. Oh how you suck boy. Where does your hatred for the Tuaregs come from ? Are their more handsome than you ?
        Tuaregs are not wanting to be arabs – why, they HAVE their identity, tho’s it’s been harassed by many troubles and massacres lisenced by France and Mali.
        Why do you enjoy when an ancient culture is dying ? It’s not too long ago since the Nothern Euraasia was occupied by Sami peoples – same kind nomads like Tuaregs. What’s the joy, man?
        What comes to Mauritania – it wanted to help escaping Tuaregs and took in tens of thousands refugees from Mali. But it sounds you are bitter over that, too.
        Your opinions are so very one-sided, all you want to say is that the Tuareg suck, but let me tell you, it is YOU who stinks so bad .

    2. And no they are not mixed.

      Mixed implies there is a white father, a black mother. A black father, a white mother. These people are not mixed. They are black, they are a couple shades lighter than other black people. So what. They think this liberation of theirs will get them a fast path to more respect among the rest of “Arabia”. Look at that picture above… they got darker and lighter skinned people among them. What? The darker ones “aren’t” mixed? The lighter ones “are”? Is “mixed” some kind of code for saying “ha ha I’m not a nigger like you, I’m miiiiiiiiixed”. Screw that. That’s why they are doing this crap in the first place. They want Algeria and Libya to cuddle them as some kind of cousins because “oh look, they are mixed”.

      Get that crap out of here. They are black. They are sell outs. They are ashamed of who they are because for generations they’ve been taught “arab is better than black”.

    3. And if you think I am offensive and wrong?

      Remind me again, what’s the word for black in Arabic over there?

      “slave”. ABED. SLAVE. What’s the word for white, Arab, Toucouleur, Bendiane? Those are actual tribe names, of actual people. Abed means slave, it has no meaning beyond that.

      If someone call me a slave then I will do the same thing a Bendiane would do if you called him a slave. Punch them in the mouth.

      So that’s the end of THAT

    4. Speak for yourself. I am tuareg and inconsider myself to be black. I am very light but hair ia curly my lips are full.
      Africa is diverse their are many tupes of black. Black is just a phenotype
      not a race. In africa we all come from different tribes.
      Everyone is mixed which is wjy humans share 99% of their genes which other.
      Melanesians have blonde hair and their black and they are not mixed.
      Their are blacks in asia as well .

      Their is no reason to divide humans because no matter what we will mix together

      1. Tuareg Gal, I think speaking about “the race” is a secret code. Originally, we want to mark our identity, our values, our ancestry, our authenticity. Otherwise it wouldn’t make any sense. I can’t blame people for that, can you.

    5. OK Achoy and everyone so are you all telling me that the KHOISAN people of South Africa who are considered the oldest Ethnicity still have the same customs have cave drawings dating back thousands of years ago and drum roll………..ARE LIGHT SKINNED and have thin eye-folds like Asians are you all telling me that they are mixed? BS most likely we all descend from them so this outside influence crap is bs Africa is the most Genetically diverse continent but everyone assumes only dark skin makes you African and than Mini..and dont tell me that they are mixed with Dutch because the Dutch found them and tried to wipe them out they were in South Africa before the Dutch and they looked just as they looked thousands of years ago but most of them have mixed in the General Population, Look up Khoisan Bushman and tell me that they are mixed because they are light skinned and you see how stupid you sound, dont forget Ethiopians im sure your all going to say they have straight hair and light skin because they are mixed this is crap just because some White Scientists tells you people who have white traits must be mixed doesent make it so, i get tired when everyone is all of a sudden genetic expert and thinks they know what happened thousands of years ago because some old white guy said so…

      1. I think Gregory Mann, the composer of that short blog, reveals to be a kinda racist, too. He doesn’t show either know the history and tragedy the nomads have been going thru’. He just claims to hate and ignoring them.
        In the latest 100 yrs, Sahara has widened and dried more, the French gone with their promises of the Tuareg country; mining has spoiled the ancient pasture lands (and will spoil more), politics and economy grown tuffer, the youth is yearning to turn to Islam or taste the Coke. How can a family survive and keep the mother’s culture in THAT? Well, they have, until these days. They are STILL matrilineal, and they DO have their ancient gods and spirits – although they are now again making political unions with muslims, in the pressure.

        Gregory Mann, don’t play you Americans or you true blacks are angels – especially, that your US administration wanting to help and “liberate” Algeria, Mali, Niger, Libya, Syria etc. from. . well yeah – from what ?
        It’s ironic.. Did you know, all the Tuaregs ever wanted, since the year 1960 when the French left, and long before that, is freedom – to move with their cattle along the Sahara from oasis to oasis. But since that kind of freedom is a great thread to the modern western-styled countries, because nomads have ALWAYS been merchants, too. They can trade, besides their own products (wool, rugs, milk, cheese, hides, crafts..) stuff like modern electronics, arms; or more ancient hashish or booze. See. But which one is really dangerous – the US and his friends, or the people wanting to live their lives ?

        The question may let your mouth open and still silent – it’s so stunning to compare a superpower with a people who still ride on camels. But the fact remains – US with its rich and powerful friends are yearning to pump up the oil and gas and mine the uranium out for their deadly plants, for their forever-growing economy (who can believe). The Tuareg -areas (North-East Mali, Niger, Algeria, Libya, see http://springtimeofnations.blogspot.fi/2012/02/mali-becomes-latest-african-country-to.html) DO have natural richess. The French Areva have been mining uranium in North-Niger and many places and villages have been contaminated with fine, wind-blown uranium powder. Since Sahara has many rivers running under grown, there’re big risks for the water to be spoiled. This is some info for you to consider and see the world wider.
        If you are an American, you can compare and say the Tuaregs are like Indians. They know their nature, can live in it, and they are proud and won’t give up.
        It’s so sad, that US was so willing to help to establish Israel in the 40s, but can’t do nothing with this but call military along.
        I really hope Mali and other Tuareg regions won’t be the next afghanistan. It’s too beautiful, dieverse world to be spoiled in the name of Coke. .

  21. Yea, yall need to get it through your sell out heads, you ain’t white, you never will be white. NO one gives a shit about your white “arab” sell outting, boot licking, territory grabbing, black hating, light skin faking, chumps. You all are black, even if you aren’t the same tribe, you so-called “Azawad” are just another bunch of “wish I could be arabs”. You aint arab. YOu got played by Al KKKeda who would give no care about the entire black race dissappearing under their boots. So sick and tired of these arab slaves trying to do arab massa’s butchering.

    1. Ok let me Make it clear to all who love to say everyone who looks like they have straight hair and small features are part white,or Arab these people are not White are not Arab but are Dark Skinned Black…and Tanned Brown and some lighter shades, they are Just as African as anyone else living on that continent and they’ve been living there for thousands of years let them be African, not all Africans have coiled hair and prominent features there’s alot of different ethnicity, look at the Berber, they are not white or black they are just what they are and they’ve been living in Africa since prehistoric times so i think it doesn’t even matter if some Euro centric Scientist comes up with some theory of straight haired Africans possibly having European descendants bs Humans evolved in different ways and not all Races had to be mixed to look the way they are Dna Studies show that most of the Egyptians you see today are closely related to ancient Egyptians with the exceptions of some Pharaohs who have some Euro Descendants but who cares i hate when people try to claim a race or disown a race just because they have different hair and skin shade, Bottom line They are African and come in different Shades and hair textures like a lot of Africans….Im tired of extreme Afro Centrists and Euro centrists and Arab-Centrists just leave people alone and stop trying to define or figure out whether or not they are Negroid or Caucasian.. Thank You..

  22. >>>>>>> I’m from the South — not the global one, the American one.>>>>>>>>>
    If and since you have African roots, and live in the US, which not too long time ago was the land of many Indian tribes only, and then was occupied by conquistadors – you boy are an international global spirit and mind (maybe DNA too).
    And what comes to Lynyrd Skynyrd, it’s redneck’s bullshit anyway.

  23. ‘White Other’, the Americans lol. Post is well-off the mark about race, shadism, and racism, which is not, using Kantian terms, a universal concept, but relative, and rooted in linguistic, social, and regional political discourse. It is, in short, not a ‘concept’ at all. This is why white people can be called ‘black’ and black people ‘white’. It is nothing but the language of insult.

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©Africa is a Country, 2016